This post is for a list of words related to typography and graphic design. This will be updated constantly. 


the logogram '&,' representing the conjunction word 'and.' 
It originated as a ligature of cursive letters 'e' and 't,' invented in 63 BC by Marcus Tirus as shorthand for 'et' which means 'and' in Latin.


a part of a letter that extends above the x-height. Lower case letters, b, d, h, k, l and t have ascender.


a part of a letter that extends below the baseline such as lower case letters, f, g, j, p, q and y

Em dash "—"

a punctuation mark has size of letter 'm' that may be used for denoting a break in a sentence. Also it may be used before a source of a quote.

En dash "–"

a punctuation mark has size of letter 'n' that may be used as replacement of 'to' between two different numbers in order like 2013–2016. 

Hyphen "-" is shorter than en dash, and it is used for connecting two nouns. Also it is used to break a word with multiple syllabus which called "hyphenation." 




a sign or character representing a word or phrase, such as those used in shorthand and some writing systems.


a character consisting of two or more joined letters, e.g., æ, fl.


a part of a letter that extends a smidge above the cap-heigh or below the baseline. Such letters that have round like O or have apex/vertex like A and V are optically in right size comparable to other letters when they "overshoot" because of the human eye perception. Otherwise, those particular letters look smaller than the rest of the letters. 

Drawing Ampersands

The ampersand is the logogram '&,' a ligature of cursive letters 'e' and 't,' as shorthand for 'et' which means 'and' in Latin.

For these couple days, I have done idea sketches of ampersands to find one good solid shape for the self initiative lettering project.

After few sketches, I realized that I already built my own ampersand archive! Drawing a letter in diverse styles can be a good practice for hand lettering. And I think it can be a daily challenge to keep myself up to have drawing habit.