Terminology


This post is for a list of words related to typography and graphic design. This will be updated constantly. 
 

AMPERSAND

the logogram '&,' representing the conjunction word 'and.' 
It originated as a ligature of cursive letters 'e' and 't,' invented in 63 BC by Marcus Tirus as shorthand for 'et' which means 'and' in Latin.

Ascender

a part of a letter that extends above the x-height. Lower case letters, b, d, h, k, l and t have ascender.

Descender

a part of a letter that extends below the baseline such as lower case letters, f, g, j, p, q and y

Em dash "—"

a punctuation mark has size of letter 'm' that may be used for denoting a break in a sentence. Also it may be used before a source of a quote.

En dash "–"

a punctuation mark has size of letter 'n' that may be used as replacement of 'to' between two different numbers in order like 2013–2016. 

Hyphen "-" is shorter than en dash, and it is used for connecting two nouns. Also it is used to break a word with multiple syllabus which called "hyphenation." 

 

 

LOGOGRAM

a sign or character representing a word or phrase, such as those used in shorthand and some writing systems.

LIGATURE

a character consisting of two or more joined letters, e.g., æ, fl.

Overshoot

a part of a letter that extends a smidge above the cap-heigh or below the baseline. Such letters that have round like O or have apex/vertex like A and V are optically in right size comparable to other letters when they "overshoot" because of the human eye perception. Otherwise, those particular letters look smaller than the rest of the letters.